It is important that any post-transplantation complication, such as rejection, is identified as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be initiated. Currently definite identification of such complications depend on biopsy procedures, which can be harmful and are in most cases not suitable for repetitive monitoring. Studies on single proteins in more easily accessible body fluids have been undertaken to determine their utility as biomarkers in diagnostic tests, but until to date no single markers could be identified with sufficient diagnostic sensitivity or specificity to be of practical use. Whole proteome analysis of body fluids, however, has the potential of identifying patterns of biomarkers for early and accurate detection of transplantation-related complications.

Mosaiques’ CE-MS technology has already enabled the identification of specific peptide patterns that can detect T-cell mediated rejection episodes in kidney allograft patients early before the increase in serum creatinine levels. Furthermore it enables early detection (up to three weeks before clinical signs will become apparent) of Graft-versus-Host Disease, a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) of leukemia patients.