It is important that any post-transplantation complication, such as graft rejection, is identified as early as possible so that appropriate therapies can be initiated. Currently definite identification of such complications in most cases depends on invasive biopsy procedures, which can be harmful and are in most cases not suitable for repetitive monitoring. Studies on single proteins in more easily accessible body fluids like blood have been undertaken to determine their utility for routine laboratory analysis, but until to date none of the targeted proteins had sufficient diagnostic sensitivity or specificity to be of clinical use. Whole proteome analysis of body fluids, however, has the potential of identifying patterns of biomarkers that allow a more detailed view on the molecular disease processes and thus enable a more timely and accurate detection of transplantation-related complications.

Mosaiques’ CE-MS technology has already enabled the identification of specific peptide patterns that can detect T-cell mediated rejection episodes in kidney allograft patients early before the increase in serum creatinine levels. Furthermore, it enables early detection of Graft-versus-Host Disease, a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of leukemia patients, up to three weeks before appearance of clinical signs.