Animal models are key components of pharmaceutical research, but the value of the results obtained relies mainly on the intrinsic ability of the model to predict the human response accurately. In recent years, genetically manipulated animals have proved hugely promising tools to decipher physiological processes. Especially rats became important species for research in neurology, endocrinology, toxicology, physiology, drug metabolism, parasitology, nutrition, growth, development, and cancer, and comprise approximately 28% of all laboratory animals.
They are valuable models for, e.g. arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, gerontology, and transplantation immunology. Several of these rat models have been examined using proteome analysis, especially in the field of renal diseases. Analysis of urinary proteins in animal models is an auspicious approach to study changes in the rat urine protein pattern after interventions, which cannot be conducted in humans.